Qianbi Jianshang "Coins identification" , , Shanghai. Hunan , , page Archived from the original on Yale University Art Gallery. To share my collection and what I have know related to the Chinese Ancient Coins to global coins collectors. Retrieved 24 March Chinese cash coins by inscription. List of Chinese cash coins by inscription. Historical money of Tibet Kucha coinage Manchukuo yuan Xinjiang coins.
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List of Chinese cash coins by inscription - Wikipedia
These cash coins are irregularly shaped, diminutive in size, thin, and are cast of poor workmanship. Some are merely five millimeters in diameter and weigh as little as 0. Former Liang Kingdom — King Zhang Gui [i]. Later Zhao Kingdom — Cheng Han Kingdom — Liu Zhu  [k]. Northern Wei dynasty — Western Wei dynasty — Northern Qi dynasty — Northern Zhou dynasty — Kucha area , Protectorate General to Pacify the West. The lead coins circulated together with copper coins.
These cash coins have a large dot above on the reverse side.
CHINESE COINS & CURRENCY
They are made of iron and the same coin cast in bronze is extremely rare. These cash coins have the character Min Chinese: They are from the Fujian region and made of lead. These cash coins have the character Fu Chinese: They are made of lead. These iron cash coins have the character Min Chinese: There is a crescent below. One of these large Yonglong Tongbao coins was worth 10 small coins and lead coins. A string of of these poorly made Min iron coins were popularly called a kao "a manacle". These cash coins are made of iron. According to the histories, because there was much lead and iron in Hunan, Ma Yin took the advice of his minister Gao Yu to cast lead and iron coins at Changsha in Extremely rare bronze specimens are also known.
These cash coins bear an inscription that is also found on Tang coins. This small lead coin is thought to have been issued by the Chu kingdom. Similar bronze coins are sometimes attributed to Ma Yin, but could be funerary items. He died three months later.
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Despite its rarity, some say this coin continued to be cast by his son, Meng Chang, until These cash coins are either made of bronze or iron. The bronze coins were cast by Meng Chang from the beginning of this period, In , iron coins began to be cast to cover additional military expenses. These cash coins were said to have been cast by the Prince of Qi or by the founder of the Southern Tang with the original name of the Tang kingdom. Only two specimens were known, and these have now disappeared. They are made of iron and date between.
There is also an extremely rare bronze example of this coin. The inscriptions of these cash coins could be written in seal , li, and regular script. These versions of the Kaiyuan Tongbao are written in li script and have broader rims. These cash coins are based on Tang Dynasty coins. They have a local style with numerous reverse inscriptions which are apparently series numbers.
Are made from iron. The Dynasty conquered northern Vietnam and made a disastrous attempt to conquer Korea. Large numbers of conscripts were needed for the construction projects and to fight wars, leading to a shortage of agricultural workers. The heavy taxation and compulsory labor duties needed for the ambitious wars and construction projects led to widespread revolts and the dynasty was overthrown in AD. The names of Chinese emperors can be confusing - because one Emperor will have many names. Like everyone, they have personal name, but that is often different than their birth name.
The reign title is the name that appears on their coins. Some emperors used one reign title for their entire reign. Others would change their reign title every few years. Some reign title would be used by more than one emperor.
Local custom allowed the person who put the string together to take a cash or a few from each hundred for his effort one, two, three or even four in some places. Thus an ounce of silver could exchange for in one city and in the next. In some places in the North of China short of currency the custom counted one cash as two and fewer than cash would be exchanged for an ounce of silver.
A string of cash weighed over ten pounds and was generally carried over the shoulder.
Cash (Chinese coin)
Paper money equivalents known as flying cash sometimes showed pictures of the appropriate number of cash coins strung together. The Koreans ,  Japanese ,  Ryukyuans ,  and Vietnamese   all cast their own copper cash in the latter part of the second millennium similar to those used by China. Vietnamese cash continued to be cast up until the early s. During the early Republican era a few more cash coins were locally produced until they were finally phased out in favour of the new yuan.
Trial coins with Fujian Sheng Zao Chinese: The earliest standard denominations of cash coins were theoretically based on the weight of the coin and were as follows:. A great majority of cash coins had no denomination specifically designated but instead carried the issuing emperor's era name and a phrases such as tongbao Chinese: Coins of the Qing Dynasty — generally carried the era name of the emperor and tongbao on the obverse and the mint location where the coins were cast in Manchu and Chinese on the reverse.
In Imperial China cash coins were used for fortune-telling , this would be done by first lighting incense to the effigy of a Chinese deity , and then placing 3 cash coins into a tortoise shell. The process involved the fortune teller counting how many coins lay on their obverse or reverse sides, and how these coins scratched the shell, this process was repeated 3 times.
Contemporary Chinese intelligentsia found the usage of cash coins for fortune-telling to be superior than any other methods. Though in general any cash coin could be used in traditional Chinese medicine but the Kai Yuan Tong Bao was most preferred, and preferences were given for some specific coins for certain ailments E. One contemporary Russian account from a battle with the Tlingits in states "bullets were useless against the Tlingit armour", however this would've more likely be attributed to the inaccuracy of contemporary Russian smoothbore muskets than the body armour and the Chinese cash coins sewn into the Tlingit armour.
Other than for military purposes the Tlingit used Chinese cash coins on ceremonial robes. Because the strings were often accepted without being checked for damaged coins and coins of inferior quality and copper-allots these strings would eventually be accepted based on their nominal value rather than their weight, this system is comparable to that of a fiat currency. Chinese cash coins with flower rosette holes Traditional Chinese: Although Chinese cash coins kept their round shape with a square hole from the Warring States period until the early years of the Republic of China, under the various regimes that ruled during the long history of China the square hole in the middle experienced only minor modifications such as being slightly bigger, smaller, more elongated, shaped incorrectly, or sometimes being filled with a bit of excess metal left over from the casting process.
However, for over years Chinese cash coins mostly kept their distinctive shape. During this period a relatively small number of Chinese cash coins were minted with what are termed "flower holes", "chestnut holes" or "rosette holes", these holes were octagonal but resembled the shape of flowers. If the shape of these holes were only hexagonal then they were referred to as "turtle shell holes", in some occidental sources they may be called "star holes" because they resemble stars.
The exact origin and purpose of these variant holes is currently unknown but several hypotheses have been proposed by Chinese scholars.
The traditional explanation for why these "flower holes" started appearing was accidental shifts of two halves of a prototype cash coin in clay, bronze, and stone moulds, these shifts would then produce the shape of the square hole to resemble multiple square holes placed on top of each other when the metal was poured in.
A common criticism of this hypothesis is that if this were to happen then the inscription on the coin would also have to appear distorted, as well as any other marks that appeared on these cash coins, however this was not the case and the "flower holes" are equally distinctive as the square ones.
Under Wang Mang 's Xin dynasty other than cash coins with "flower holes" also spade money with "flower holes" were cast. Under the reign of the Tang dynasty the number of Chinese cash coins with "flower holes" started to increase and circulated throughout the entire empire, concurrently the casting of Chinese cash coins was switched from using clay moulds to using bronze ones, however the earliest Kaiyuan Tongbao cash coins were still cast with clay moulds so the mould type alone cannot explain why these "flower holes" became increasingly common. All sides of these coins either octagonal with "flower holes" or hexagonal with "turtle shell holes" are clearly contained inside of the cash coin's central rim.
It is suspected that the "flower holes" and "turtle shell holes" were produced during chiseling process, presumably while the employee of the manufacturing mint was doing the final details of the cash coins. As manually filing and chiseling cash coins was both an additional expense as well as time-consuming it is likely that the creation of "flower holes" and "turtle shell holes" was ordered by the manufacturer.
However, as the quality of Tang and Song dynasty coinages was quite high it's unlikely that the supervisors would have allowed for a large number of these variant coins to be produced, pass quality control or be allowed to enter circulation. Cash coins with "flower holes" were produced in significant numbers by the Northern Song dynasty , Southern Song dynasty , and Khitan Liao dynasty.
Due to this one hypothesis states that "flower holes" were added to Chinese cash coins to signify a year or period of the year or possibly a location where a cash coin was produced. The practice of creating cash coins with "flower holes" and "turtle shell holes" was also adopted by Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, however cash coins with these features are extremely rare in these countries despite using the same production techniques which further indicates that their addition was wholly intentional. Red cash coins are also generally marked by their rather crude craftsmanship when compared to the cash coins of China proper.
The edges of these coins are often not filed completely and the casting technique is often inaccurate or the inscriptions on them seemed deformed. At the introduction of red cash system in Southern Xinjiang in , the exchange rate of standard cash or "yellow cash" and "red cash" was set at 10 standard cash coins were worth 1 "red cash coin".
During two or three subsequent years this exchange rate was decreased to 5: When used in the Northern or Eastern circuits of Xinjiang, the "red cash coins" were considered equal in value as the standard cash coins that circulated there.